Large-scale medical cannabis study led by FGCU will explore best CBD/THC ratio for treatment of anxiety

Large-scale medical cannabis study led by FGCU will explore best CBD/THC ratio for treatment of anxiety

According to data from the Florida Department of Health there are more than 645-thousand active patients currently eligible for medicinal cannabis in Florida. Qualifying conditions in Florida include things like cancer, epilepsy, glaucoma, seizures, PTSD, Parkinson’s disease, and anxiety.

And while multiple peer-reviewed studies have shown that cannabis can be effective in treating anxiety, much less is known about the specific ratios of cannabinoids that work best to alleviate anxiety symptoms. Cannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds found in cannabis. There are more than 80 of them, the most commonly known being THC and CBD.

Now, a new study led by Florida Gulf Coast University, Releaf App, and CannaMD hopes to further clarify just what ratios of cannabinoids best reduce anxiety symptoms. CannaMD is one of the largest networks of medical cannabis physicians in Florida.

Researchers will track patient-reported experiences while consuming medical marijuana purchased at dispensaries around the state. Participants will answer daily, standardized anxiety-related questions using their smartphones for a 45-day period to track details about their cannabis use and associated outcomes related to symptom relief and side effects.

The goal is to recruit up to 1,000 certified Florida medical marijuana patients.


Source:, Dr. Nate Pipitone, Jessica Walters

Passenger suffered epileptic seizure amid Dublin Airport weekend chaos

Passenger suffered epileptic seizure amid Dublin Airport weekend chaos

The passenger’s wife believes the stress of the situation triggered the seizure.

Monday night’s episode of Claire Byrne saw a guest state that her husband suffered an epileptic seizure during the chaos at Dublin Airport last weekend.

This follows the DAA (Dublin Airport Authority) confirming on Monday that over 1,000 people missed flights on Sunday due to large queues at the airport.

Claire Byrne Live’s final episode began with a discussion regarding the issues at Dublin Airport, with the host in conversation with some of the people who were there over the weekend.

Speaking to Byrne from Vermont in the US, guest Deborah described how her husband with epilepsy missed his flight back to the US on Saturday due to the queues.

She also said that she believes the stress of trying to get through security triggered a seizure for her husband.

“Absolutely it did. Stress can trigger epileptic seizures. He wears a medical alert bracelet. He carries medication with him,” she explained.

“But to have somebody queue in security for as long as he did, dehydration can cause it too.

“It was such a scene. It was really difficult for them to even figure out which queue to join.”

During this time, Deborah said she was speaking to her husband over the phone.

“He had finally gotten through security and yet had not made his flight,” she said.

“We were speaking on the phone… There was a group of people waiting for baggage and to be rebooked, they were already passed security but not through immigration.”

It was at this point that Deborah stated that she heard her husband say he was going to have a seizure.

“I was very concerned. Then I could hear him having a seizure. His language gets very garbled, he tries to speak but he can’t,” she said.

“I was trying to talk him through it. I was trying to get him to find someone to help him but he said: ‘There’s no one here. There’s no one to help’.

“I said: ‘Look for a security person or a first-aid person’. He finally was able to just lean up against a desk.”

Deborah told Byrne that her husband had family in Ireland who were able to collect him from the airport and take care of him in the evening but that he had to make it out of the building post-seizure by himself.

This was before he was able to board a flight back to the US on Sunday.

Speaking on RTÉ’s Morning Ireland on Monday, DAA’s Head of Communications Kevin Cullinane apologised for the issues passengers faced in the airport over the weekend.

Cullinane said the airport was operating at the max of its available staffing levels and on “very fine margins”.

“Yesterday morning when we opened security in terminal one and terminal two, we clearly didn’t have enough security lanes open due to resourcing challenges, and at the moment any absenteeism impacts on our ability to operate lanes,” he said.


Source:, Sam Boal/

The cause of infantile spasms may provide the key to novel treatments

The cause of infantile spasms may provide the key to novel treatments

A study of animal and human brains uncovered what causes infantile spasms and identified a hormone that could be used to treat and alleviate symptoms.

By studying the brains of infantile spasm (IS) patients and animal models, John Swann’s laboratory at the Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute at Texas Children’s Hospital (TX, USA) observed that the pathology of IS was associated with decreased levels of the hormone insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1). When the IS animal models were supplemented with an IGF-1 analog, spasms and abnormal brain activity were prevented, providing hope for future treatment.

Fifty percent of epilepsy cases affecting infants in the first 12 months of life are attributed to IS; however, there is a dearth of treatment options currently available. This severe epileptic syndrome is diagnosed in 2500 babies annually in the United States and many infants will subsequently suffer from developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, and other types of severe epilepsy.

Swann’s team infused tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the cortex of the infant rat brain for a prolonged period to develop a brain lesion. This is an established method that enables the reproduction of the clinical characteristics of IS: spasms, brain wave abnormalities (hypsarrhythmia), and altered drug responsiveness. The animal models were then analyzed by long-term video electroencephalogram recordings and immunohistochemistry.

“As is expected after a brain injury, we saw an increase in IGF-1 levels in the non-neuronal support cells (aka glia) at the site of TTX infusion. However, we were most intrigued by the remarkable and widespread decrease in IGF-1 expression in cortical neurons in brain regions adjacent to or further away from the site of TTX injection – a phenomenon that had never been reported before,” Swann commented.

In addition, Swann’s team performed immunohistochemistry to examine cortical tissue from infants with IS, who had suffered prior perinatal strokes and required surgery to control their seizures, which exhibited strikingly similar relationships to the IS animal models.

“More importantly, we found this reduction in cortical levels of IGF-1 had significant consequences in IS animal models because it dampened the overall activity of the IGF-1 molecular signaling pathways that regulate many important biological processes involved in early brain development and neuronal function,” explained lead author Carlos Ballester-Rosado.

In order to confirm that IGF-1 levels play a pivotal role in IS, IGF-1 knock-out mice were treated with an analog of the IGF-1 protein, (1-3)IGF-1. This tripeptide is smaller than the complete IGF-1 hormone allowing it to cross the blood-brain barrier more easily. After administering the mice with (1-3)IGF-1, the spasms and hypsarrhythmia symptoms appeared to be less frequent or eliminated in the majority of the mice.

“Using several lines of evidence, we first confirmed that this IGF-1 tripeptide was capable of activating the IGF-1 signaling cascade in mice,” Swann added. “We then found – to our astonishment – that administration of IGF-1 successfully eliminated spasms and an IS-specific chaotic brain activity pattern called hypsarrhythmia in most of the IS animals. We are excited because these findings raise the tantalizing possibility that this IGF-1 analog can be used to treat IS patients in the future.”



Puppet performance educates families about epilepsy

Puppet performance educates families about epilepsy

Demmi Connonlly (left) and Darrel Stephenson showcase a puppet show that educates and entertains children about epilepsy. It runs at the International Children’s Festival of the Arts from June 2 to 5.

Children with epilepsy often face numerous personal challenges. There is the fear of repeatedly dealing with the physical effects of seizures, side effects from medication, and depression as well as learning and/or cognitive difficulties. And finally, there is the fear of peer rejection and social stigma.

That is a huge physical, emotional, and psychological burden for a child to carry. But they are not alone.

The Edmonton Epilepsy Association purchased a copyright to Kids on the Block, a puppet show that introduces Brian McDaniel, an 11-year-old boy who copes with seizures. The puppet show runs at the International Children’s Festival of the Arts from June 2 to 5 at St. Albert Public Library, Forsythe Hall.

Kids on the Block works to empower individuals dealing with fear, stigmas, teasing, and bullying. The show’s goal is to give children tools so they will feel safe, accepted, and supported. In addition, it offers onlookers ways of dealing with an unexpected episode.

Valeria Palladino, the association’s executive director, said that while epilepsy is the fourth most common neurological disorder in the world, it is the “first” most common in children. Roughly one in 100 people develop epilepsy. Based on a one-per-cent estimate, about 380,000 Canadians have epilepsy.

“Fortunately, many grow out of it — 50 to 60 per cent will grow out of it. Not all seizures are from epilepsy. If you have a seizure from a high fever, that is not considered epilepsy. Epilepsy is defined by multiple seizures. You must have two unprovoked seizures and there are over 40 types of seizures,” said Palladino.

As executive director, she heavily promotes Kids on the Block as an educational resource that makes it easy to learn and ask questions at a Q & A following the production.

“It’s positive and educational in building understanding. What we find most useful are the questions at the end. By asking a puppet questions, children feel very safe.”

Rabbi Barbara Aiello first developed Kids on the Block scripts in 1977 when the U.S. government passed a bill to expand inclusivity in schools, explained Palladino. Aiello structured the 45-minute scripts adapting the ancient Japanese puppetry form of Bunraku. The puppets are taller than a metre, hand-held, and rod-manipulated by puppeteers dressed from head to toe in black. The focus is completely on the puppets.

The association purchased the copyright to two scripts 17 years ago and has promoted them heavily in school settings. Kids on the Block debuts its first out-of-school show at the festival in the hopes of reaching a wider audience.

Darrel Stephenson, a freelance Edmonton actor who has amassed experience in film projects, radio, murder mysteries for corporate events, and medical projects, has voiced the lead character, Brian, since its inception. Two other actors lending their talents as school buddies are Demmi Connolly and Anthony Hunchak.

“The last two years we haven’t gone into schools due to the pandemic. Everything was done virtually online. It’s OK, but there is better interaction, better communication when it’s live. When you’re live, kids can come up after the show and ask questions without being embarrassed in front of their classmates,” said Stephenson.

Some may feel there’s a smidgen of disconnect when a grown man voices a Grade 5 student. However, Stephenson has borrowed techniques from some of the best animators and puppeteers, namely Mel Blanc (the voice of Bugs Bunny) and Daws Butler of Hanna-Barbera Productions.

“I don’t do voices. I do characters. Brian is an 11-year-old boy. He’s very real and has a very real problem. He’s not a puppet. He’s a character,” Stephenson explained.

But all the work is worth it when actors hear rustles and giggles coming from a live audience.

“When you hear the sound of a hundred kids moving into the audience, you’re jacked. The audience gives a performer feedback. It’s give and take. If the audience likes what you do, you can give more to them.”

All performances are free and drop-in only. Scheduled performances are listed on the website at and posted at the festival site.

Source:, Anna Borowiecki, VALLERIA PALLADINO/Photo

Time for employers to learn more about epilepsy

Time for employers to learn more about epilepsy

Lesslie Young on the challenges facing people with epilepsy

Last week, Epilepsy Scotland launched the #ExcelWithEpilepsy campaign during National Epilepsy Week. The aim of the campaign was to show that epilepsy or any other neurological condition does not have to stop people from doing amazing things.

We wanted to show that epilepsy does not always have to be a barrier or limitation and to increase awareness of epilepsy in the workplace and engage employers with information to better support people with epilepsy to find and retain secure employment.

In January 2022, we conducted a survey exploring epilepsy and employment. We received 68 responses, 90% of whom were either currently employed or had recently been in paid employment.

The survey revealed 73% of respondents felt their epilepsy had impacted their career choices. Moreover, 39% of respondents felt they had experienced discrimination in the workplace because of their epilepsy.

Currently, 81.3% of the non-disabled population in Scotland are in employment. For people with epilepsy this figure is only 36.9%.

We are eager to change those statistics. We are aiming to increase awareness of epilepsy in the workplace and engage employers with information to better support people with epilepsy to find and retain secure employment.

#ExcelWithEpilepsy campaign

Over the course of National Epilepsy Week, we shared stories from a variety of people who have epilepsy including comedian Jake Lambert who will be appearing in an hour-long show at the Edinburgh Festival in August which will be dedicated to his experiences of being diagnosed and living with epilepsy.

Also, we shared a story from professional footballer Leon Legge who shared how he manages his epilepsy whilst playing professional sport.

We wanted to inspire people living with epilepsy by sharing stories from people working in different industries who have had great success despite living with a neurological condition which affects 1 in 97 people in Scotland.

We also shared stories from members of our Youth Group and Wellbeing Group, looking at how they have adapted to living with epilepsy, how they have overcome various challenges and how our services have helped them.

For many people, epilepsy is a life changing condition. We know epilepsy can have a negative impact on people’s mental health, education, and employment opportunities.

We know there is a long way to go until we can get rid of the stigma which is associated with epilepsy and to improve the understanding of the condition amongst businesses, employers and in the workplace.

People with epilepsy should not be discriminated against because of their condition. There are ways for employers to support people who have epilepsy such as introducing reasonable adjustments.

For example, setting a fixed shift pattern for people who find their seizures are triggered by tiredness.

As we showed throughout National Epilepsy Week, epilepsy does not have to be a barrier or limitation. People with epilepsy can still excel despite their condition.

We encourage employers to see the benefit people living with epilepsy or any neurological condition can bring to their business and start learning and understanding more about one of the most common neurological conditions in the world.

For more information, about our #ExcelWithEpilepsy campaign, please go to our website at:


Source:, Lesslie Young

World Health Organization Unanimously Approves Plan to Improve Epilepsy Care, Reduce Stigma

World Health Organization Unanimously Approves Plan to Improve Epilepsy Care, Reduce Stigma

Newswise — On 27 May 2022, World Health Organization (WHO) Member States approved the Intersectoral Global Action Plan on Epilepsy and other Neurological Disorders (IGAP) at the 75th World Health Assembly in Geneva, Switzerland.

Four international organizations and 116 Member States spoke in support of the plan, which passed unanimously.

IGAP will address the challenges and gaps in providing care and services for people with epilepsy and other neurological disorders that exist worldwide and ensure a comprehensive, coordinated response across sectors.

“International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) is grateful for the attention to the needs of people with epilepsy on part of the WHO, as well as to the Member States supporting its approval,” said J. Helen Cross, president of ILAE.

In November 2020, the Seventy-third World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA 73.10 to develop IGAP in consultation with Member States. In January 2022, a revised draft was approved at the 150th session of the WHO Executive Board.

IGAP includes two global targets specific to epilepsy to be achieved by all Member States by 2031:

  • All countries will have increased service coverage for epilepsy by 50% from the current coverage in 2021.
  • 80% of countries will have developed or updated their legislation with a view to promoting and protecting the human rights of people with epilepsy..

ILAE has developed a 90-80-70 action cascade as part of its roadmap to support the urgently needed expansion of  health and care services for people with epilepsy. The aims of the action cascade are that by 2031:

  • 90% of people with epilepsy are aware of their diagnosis as a treatable brain disorder
  • 80% of people with epilepsy have access to affordable, appropriate, safe anti-seizure medication
  • 70% of people with epilepsy receiving treatment achieve adequate seizure control

“We look forward to working with all partners to achieve the IGAP targets, which will improve care and quality of life for people with epilepsy and their families,” said Dr Julie Hall, ILAE’s Executive Director.

Focus areas

To meet the global targets, IGAP includes proposed actions for Member States, the WHO Secretariat, and national and international partners in several areas:

Access to services for epilepsy – Approximately 70% of people with epilepsy can be seizure free with treatment. However, treatment gaps exist in every country in the world. The current treatment gap estimate is 75% in lower-income countries and is substantially higher in rural areas.

Engagement and support for people with epilepsy – People with epilepsy and their families are stigmatized and discriminated against as a result of the misconceptions and negative attitudes that surround epilepsy. This leads to human rights violations and social exclusion. In some settings, children with epilepsy may not be allowed to attend school; adults may not be able to find suitable employment or to marry.

Epilepsy as an entry point for other neurological disorders – Epilepsy can be secondary to other neurological conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury. It also can occur along with other conditions; for example, 19% of people with epilepsy also have migraine, and about 26% of adults with epilepsy also have intellectual disability.

With support, the IGAP will help to strengthen the prevention, detection, care, treatment, and equal opportunities for people with epilepsy and other neurological disorders worldwide.

About epilepsy

  • Epilepsy affects people of all ages, genders, races and income levels.
  • Poor populations and those living in low- and middle-income countries bear a disproportionate disease burden which significantly impacts on economic and social development.
  • In many parts of the world, people with epilepsy and their families suffer from stigmatization and discrimination due to ignorance, misconceptions and negative attitudes surrounding the disease. They often face serious difficulties in education, employment, marriage, and reproduction.
  • The risk of premature death in people with epilepsy is three times higher than the general population. Important causes of death and injury include sudden unexpected deaths in epilepsy, status epilepticus, burns, drowning and suicide.
  • Excess mortality is higher in low- and middle-income countries and is associated with lack of access to health facilities, large treatment gaps, and a failure to address the potentially preventable causes of epilepsy.
  • Epilepsy often co-exists with and can be compounded by other comorbid health conditions, including other neurological disorders, necessitating a synergistic approach.


Source:, International League Against Epilepsy

Seizure- or Epilepsy-Related Emergency Department Visits Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic — United States, 2019–2021

Seizure- or Epilepsy-Related Emergency Department Visits Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic — United States, 2019–2021


What is already known about this topic?

Seizures or epilepsy account for 1% of annual emergency department (ED) visits. Data on seizure- or epilepsy-related ED visits during the COVID-19 pandemic are limited.

What is added by this report?

Weekly seizure- or epilepsy-related ED visits decreased sharply during the early pandemic period among all age groups, especially children aged 0–9 years. The return to pre-pandemic baseline in this group was delayed until mid-2021, longer than other age groups.

What are the implications for public health practice?

These findings reinforce the importance of understanding factors associated with ED avoidance among persons with epilepsy or seizure, the importance that all eligible persons be up to date with COVID-19 vaccination, and the need to encourage persons to seek appropriate care for seizure-related emergencies.

Seizures, transient signs or symptoms caused by abnormal surges of electrical activity in the brain, can result from epilepsy, a neurologic disorder characterized by abnormal electrical brain activity causing recurrent, unprovoked seizures, or from other inciting causes, such as high fever or substance abuse. Seizures generally account for approximately 1% of all emergency department (ED) visits.

Persons of any age can experience seizures, and outcomes might range from no complications for those with a single seizure to increased risk for injury, comorbidity, impaired quality of life, and early mortality for those with epilepsy.

To examine trends in weekly seizure- or epilepsy-related (seizure-related) ED visits in the United States before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, CDC analyzed data from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP). Seizure-related ED visits decreased abruptly during the early pandemic period. By the end of 2020, seizure-related ED visits returned almost to pre-pandemic levels for persons of all ages, except children aged 0–9 years.

By mid-2021, however, this age group gradually returned to baseline as well. Reasons for the decrease in seizure-related ED visits in 2020 among all age groups and the slow return to baseline among children aged 0–9 years compared with other age groups are unclear.

The decrease might have been associated with fear of exposure to COVID-19 infection in EDs deterring parents or guardians of children from seeking care, adherence to mitigation measures including avoiding public settings such as EDs, or increased access to telehealth services decreasing the need for ED visits.

These findings reinforce the importance of understanding factors associated with ED avoidance among persons with epilepsy or seizure, the importance that all eligible persons be up to date with COVID-19 vaccination, and the need to encourage persons to seek appropriate care for seizure-related emergencies to prevent adverse outcome.

NSSP collects deidentified electronic health record data from EDs and other health care settings. ED visit data are derived from a subset of approximately 71% of the nation’s nonfederal EDs (i.e., EDs not supported by the Veterans Health Administration or U.S. Department of Defense). Diagnosis codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth RevisionClinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth RevisionClinical Modification (ICD-10-CM), Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, and relevant free-text reason for visit (chief complaint) terms were used to identify seizure-related ED visits (Supplementary Table, (Supplementary Box,

All analyses were restricted to EDs that reported consistently more complete data throughout the study period (January 1, 2019–December 31, 2021); 56% of EDs sharing data with NSSP met these criteria. CDC assessed trends by six age groups (0–9, 10–19, 20–39, 40–59, 60–69, and ≥70 years) and visualized age-specific trends of weekly seizure-related ED visits during 2019–2021. Using R (version 4.1.2; The R Foundation), CDC quantified change in mean weekly seizure-related ED visits during April 1–December 29 across 3 years: 2019, 2020, and 2021; results were stratified by age group and sex. Percentage change in mean weekly seizure-related ED visits was assessed by comparing 2020 data with corresponding data from 2019 and 2021. This activity was reviewed by CDC and was conducted consistent with applicable federal law and CDC policy.

All ED visits, including seizure-related ED visits, decreased among all age groups and among both males and females during the pandemic period April 1–December 29, 2020, compared with the corresponding period in 2019. The largest decline in seizure-related ED visits, noted as early as February 2020, was observed among children aged 0–9 years. During April 1–December 29, 2020, the number of weekly seizure-related ED visits declined by 16% overall to 19,824, from 23,588 during the same period in 2019.

Among children aged 0–9 years, the number of seizure-related weekly ED visits declined by 44% to 1,553, compared with 2,759 visits during the same period in 2019; overall ED visits among children aged 0–9 years declined by 56%, from 162,711 visits in 2019 to 71,131 in 2020. By the first week of 2021, the number of seizure-related ED visits among all age groups was close to respective pre-pandemic levels in 2019, with the exception of children aged 0–9 years, among whom the rebound to pre-pandemic levels was delayed until approximately week 25 of 2021.

To examine whether the decrease among children aged 0–9 years was associated with pediatric febrile seizure burden, a posthoc analysis was conducted. In children aged 0–9 years, febrile seizures accounted for approximately one third of all seizure-related ED visits in all 3 years (approximately 35%, 31%, and 33% in 2019, 2020, and 2021, respectively)


In this study of trends in seizure-related ED visits during the COVID-19 pandemic, seizure-related ED visits during the initial COVID-19 waves declined among all age groups, especially among children aged 0–9 years. These findings are consistent with several other studies (68). In one analysis of U.S. ED visits during January 2019–May 2020, the number of weekly all-cause ED visits declined abruptly during March 29–April 25, 2020, along with a decline in ED visits among children aged 0–9 years attributable to common conditions, including influenza, otitis media, upper respiratory conditions, asthma, viral infection, respiratory symptoms, and fever. International studies have described a reduction in seizure-related ED visits among children during the COVID-19 pandemic, with one study reporting a notable decline in febrile seizure–related ED visits among children aged 0–6 years.

The percentages of ED visits attributable to febrile seizures among children aged 0–9 years in this study were relatively stable, therefore any changes in ED visits for febrile seizures during the study period were unlikely to explain the overall change of trend in seizure-related ED visits in this age group. Researchers in Italy examined selected causes for seizure-related ED visits during February 23–April 21, 2020 (e.g., first episode or breakthrough seizure), but could not attribute the observed decrease in seizure-related ED visits to seizure type (e.g., febrile versus first episode seizures). However, a limitation of the Italian study was small sample size; thus, the findings warrant additional study. The findings related to febrile seizure–attributable ED use in the current report differ from, but supplement growing research in this area.

In the present study, school closures and the need to shelter at home could have facilitated heightened supervision of children while at home, including increased monitoring and promotion of healthful behaviors reducing seizure risk (e.g., medication adherence and regular sleep) or seizure sequelae (e.g., injury), thereby reducing the need for ED care. The decrease in weekly seizure-related ED visits among children aged 0–9 years might also have been associated with concern about risk for COVID-19 in EDs, deterring parents or guardians from seeking care for their children. It is also possible that expanded access and increased use of telehealth facilitated triaged telephone support or virtual health care encounters, especially for children with epilepsy and high-risk comorbidities, otherwise obtained in EDs. Additional studies are warranted to determine whether decreased in-person ED care for children with seizures or epilepsy during the initial COVID-19 pandemic was associated with any differences in risk for infection, injury, or delayed care, seizure type, or other factors and any associations between these factors and adverse outcomes.

The findings in this report are subject to at least four limitations. First, because NSSP coverage varies both within and across states, NSSP data are not nationally representative. In some states nearly all hospitals report, while in others only those in certain counties or health care systems report. Thus, these findings might not be generalizable. Second, differences in availability, coding practices, and reporting of chief complaints and discharge diagnoses from facilities might influence trends. To limit the impact of changing data volume and underlying data quality on results, only data from hospitals with consistent reporting and more complete data were included in this analysis. Third, trends displayed are restricted to ED visits only, and do not capture treatment sought for seizures in other settings. Finally, distinguishing initial seizure-related visits from subsequent visits was not possible, therefore the numbers of ED visits reported might represent multiple visits by one person.

These findings reinforce the importance of understanding factors associated with ED avoidance among persons with epilepsy or seizures, and any alternative care approaches among persons with epilepsy or seizures and the need to encourage persons to seek appropriate care for seizure-related emergencies. Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, of all age-eligible persons, including those with epilepsy, is recommended to protect against the adverse effects of COVID-19.


Source:, Kathleen Hartnett, Michael Sheppard, Jonathan Wortham

Opinion  If Roe falls, more women will be prosecuted for miscarriages

Opinion If Roe falls, more women will be prosecuted for miscarriages

About 10 years ago, a longtime state medical examiner in Texas and Mississippi told me something that has stuck with me ever since. He said there’s a type of prosecutor who believes that innocent babies just don’t die on their own. “They don’t believe in accidents,” he said, “especially when the parents are poor. Someone must be at fault. So someone has to pay.”


It isn’t hard to find cases to back up his theory. I’ve previously written about Hattie Douglas, a Mississippi woman who was arrested and jailed for a year for killing her infant son with alcohol poisoning until a lab concluded a medical examiner had botched the test results. There’s Sabrina Butler, who spent two years on death row for murdering her infant son, until doctors later concluded the baby likely died of kidney disease. Jeffrey Havard is still serving a life sentence for killing his girlfriend’s 6-month-old, despite multiple affidavits from medical professionals concluding the forensic evidence against him was junk science. In 2012, a Georgia woman was convicted of vehicular homicide after her 4-year-old son was killed by a hit-and-run driver, because she and her son were jaywalking at the time.

Other medical examiners and defense attorneys have since echoed the sentiment, pointing to cases in which prosecutors utilized scientifically dubious expert testimony to secure convictions after a baby has died. Many point to shaken baby syndrome, a diagnosis that swept through the criminal legal system in the 1990s. The diagnosis has since come under fire in the scientific community, but it’s still given weight in much of the country, including Mississippi, where just last year the state’s Supreme Court voted 5 to 4 to uphold a conviction based on the theory.

It’s against this history that criminal defense and civil rights groups have expressed alarm over Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr.’s leaked draft opinion that would overturn Roe v. Wade. If some prosecutors already believe babies don’t die without criminal culpability, it stands to reason that as state legislatures push fetal personhood back to fertilization, the same logic will be applied to miscarriages. Women who miscarry could be investigated for using alcohol, tobacco, or illicit drugs, or engaging in other behavior prosecutors deem risky.

In fact, this is already happening. In 2007, a Lowndes County, Miss. grand jury indicted Rennie Gibbs with murder after a stillbirth when traces of a cocaine byproduct were found in her blood. In 2020, an Oklahoma woman was charged after methamphetamine was found in her system (despite a medical examiner’s conclusion that it played no role in the miscarriage). In 2019, an Alabama woman was charged with manslaughter for starting an argument with another woman, who then shot her, killing her fetus.

But those are merely the cases that have received national attention. According to the National Advocates for Pregnant Women, between 2006 and 2020 more than 1,300 women were arrested, detained, or otherwise physically deprived of liberty for reasons related to a pregnancy. In some cases the women were charged for unintentionally harming the fetus, typically through the use of alcohol or illicit drugs. In others, prosecutors alleged the women had intentionally tried to induce an abortion

One study of more than 400 arrests or other “forced interventions” by the state on pregnant women found that more than half the women were Black, and about 7 in 10 were poor enough to qualify for a public defender. There was also wide geographic disparity. Just 10 states accounted for more than two-thirds of the cases, and nearly 8 in 10 came out of the South or Midwest. South Carolina alone represented 23 percent of the cases and, incredibly, 7 percent originated from a single South Carolina hospital.

At least 38 states currently have laws granting legal protections to fetuses. In 29, those protections kick in shortly after fertilization. But under Roe and subsequent cases, harm that befalls the fetus during a legal abortion is exempted. (In fact, the study mentioned above found that many prosecutions were already in direct defiance of federal court rulings.) But if Roe falls and states make abortion illegal, those exceptions will no longer apply. In states that put personhood at fertilization, any pregnancy that doesn’t result in a live birth could be subject to scrutiny and possible prosecution.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about one-quarter of all pregnancies end in miscarriage, and about 1 in 3 women will experience one.Under a legal regime in which medical abortion is illegal, some women will inevitably try to end their pregnancies themselves. They may be targets of prosecution. But because of that, a larger percentage of women who involuntarily miscarry will likely be suspected and targeted, too.

Here, too, the prosecutions will no doubt be disproportionate. Due to malnutrition, access to medical care and other factors, poor and non-White women are more likely to miscarry. They’re also more likely to have unplanned pregnancies. If these prosecutions become more common, poorer women will be less likely to seek medical care when something goes wrong (especially since many of these prosecutions rely on tips from health-care workers), meaning more miscarriages, bringing yet more suspicion. In states such as Texas and Alabama there are already reports that physicians and pharmacists are declining to treat miscarriages in fear of a lawsuit or prosecution.

The fear here isn’t that states will explicitly make miscarriage a crime. It’s that once abortion is illegal, women who do miscarry will be investigated for ending their pregnancies intentionally. Their lifestyles and decisions will be scrutinized. They’ll be prosecuted for things such as addiction, malnutrition or failing to seek medical care. History suggests that the women most suspected will be disproportionately non-White, and they’ll overwhelmingly be women who lack the means and the platform to defend themselves.

Source:, Radley Balko

Murray on Morning Live with Martin Kemp

Murray on Morning Live with Martin Kemp

It’s not every day you get asked to share your epilepsy story on Morning TV, let alone get to meet one of your musical heroes! For Epilepsy Action media volunteer Murray, it was all in a day’s work when he got the call to feature in a BBC Morning Live film, fronted by Martin Kemp (Spandau Ballet/Eastenders).

Murray has been working with the research team at Kings College London to trial the UNEEG SubQ device – a small, implantable device which is fitted under the skin. It is constantly monitoring seizure patterns to give people like Murray more detailed information to help them better understand and predict their seizures.

This National Epilepsy Week, Murray gives us a behind-the-scenes look at his Morning Live experience and shares his words of inspiration and support about living with epilepsy.

Hi, it’s Murray here.

I was recently asked if I would like to be interviewed by the BBC’s Morning Live programme about my epilepsy and the SubQ implant that records and measures the data on my seizures. I was happy to help.

At first I was told I was going to be interviewed at King’s College where the surgery took place, by none other than Martin Kemp, 80’s pop legend! This was a dream for me, one because I am a massive music fan of that era – I still remember sitting on the floor as a boy watching Martin striding across Wembley Stadium playing Bass at Live Aid ’85 with Spandau.

Things got a bit madder when the producer phoned me back and told me that Martin said that he wanted to interview me at my house.

Wow, so I’ve been to hundreds of gigs, met lots of my heroes, have so much memorabilia from over the years. But now, one of them is coming to my house, because he wants to speak to me, about my condition?

Martin was completely down to earth, incredibly humble and took his time to talk about our experiences of epilepsy, the side-effects and medications. He wasn’t a celebrity that day – we were two guys sharing our epilepsy stories and he knew his stuff. I really admired his attitude and positivity.

It was amazing seeing the first 100 days’ worth of data on screen for the first time at King’s College with Martin and Professor Mark Richardson, who headed up the SubQ project. It showed the seizures, which lasted longer than I thought, but also other seizures I hadn’t seen, and even muscle movements. The science behind this is incredible and I’m confident it will change – and save – lives.

My friends and work colleagues were jealous about me meeting Martin, especially the ladies! But ultimately all were happy that the message was going out and everyone backed me, and they continue to do so.

The SubQ itself has become part of me now. It doesn’t feel like it’s there anymore. I can’t believe it’s been just over six months since I had it fitted. To think there’s a 10cm wire running the length of my temporal lobe, yet it’s invisible and taking in all that information, 24 hours a day. To anyone else, the wire looks like it could be connected to my headphones when I’m listening to my music. It really isn’t noticeable and looks like I’m wearing some futuristic MP3 player.

Sure, it took a little while getting used to locating the sweet spot when connecting the outer pad to the embedded disc, but it’s second nature to me now. I’ve caught it a couple of times in my sleep, but it doesn’t hurt. I just reconnect and I’m ready to go again. I can’t really break it. There’s only simple rule I need to follow – don’t get it wet. For anyone living with epilepsy, you download the data like taking your medication. It’s part of the plan of looking after your health. A digital diary of sorts and a million times more accurate because your brain is doing all the work.

On the day of the operation, I was both nervous and excited, but probably more of the latter. I had so many questions. Would it hurt? Why was I doing this? Would it help me? Would it help others? Will it tell me anything about myself?

After my first review recently, I got the answer to my final question. This device really works. Going forward, algorithms will be able to predict what seizures may come before they even happen to me. Incredible. I think the device itself will make a change to my life because, after 26 years of living with epilepsy, it will finally tell me the story of my condition over longer periods. It is constantly being monitored. I recently had a fall and hurt my back during a seizure. It has only happened 3 times in my life, but this time I was wearing the SubQ, so I feel like I have captured it and I will find out what was happening in my brain at that moment and why it happened.

I think that I need to tell people about epilepsy so they feel comfortable around me. I don’t want them to be scared should something happen. I also want them to be educated, and it ensures my safety should something happen. I thank Epilepsy Action for allowing me the opportunity to magnify the message to a wider audience.

If I were to give any words of wisdom, it would be to make sure that you live with and own your condition as much as you can. Don’t let it be the other way around. Talk to people about it. It really helps. I have come to accept that Epilepsy is part of who I am. It always will be. I don’t fear it, I embrace it. I used to be scared but I can’t live like that anymore because it will make me ill in other ways. I cannot be cured, but I hope that what I have to share will, someday, save someone else. That is my only wish.



What to Expect with Absence Seizures

What to Expect with Absence Seizures

An absence seizure is a generalized onset seizure, which affects both sides of the brain at the same moment. During an absence seizure, you lose awareness of your surroundings.These seizures can cause a person to stare blankly, as though they are daydreaming. They may last around 15 seconds and can occur several times per day.

This article explains the causes, symptoms, and treatment options related to absence seizures. It also covers epilepsies characterized by absence seizures and their management.

What is an absence seizure?

Doctors may categorize an absence seizure as typical or atypical, according to the Epilepsy Foundation. They are brief and do not involve large movements or changes in muscle tone, unlike motor seizures, such as generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

Typical absence seizures

Typical absence seizures are more common than atypical absence seizures and usually last less than 10 seconds. Symptoms can include:

  • stopping all activity, with the person possibly stopping talking mid-sentence
  • staring into the distance
  • having a blank look on the face
  • eyes looking upward
  • eyelids fluttering
  • not responding to anything, or impaired awareness

Atypical absence seizures

Atypical absence seizures last 20 seconds or longer, and they start and end slower than typical absence seizures. The symptoms include those of a typical absence seizure but include more movements, such as:

  • smacking the lips
  • chewing movements
  • hand motions and fidgeting
  • limp muscles
  • moving around
  • responding to the environment

After a seizure of this type, you are likely to continue the activity you were doing before the seizure and may not be aware that you had a seizure. However, if you have many seizures throughout the day, you may be confused. You may not follow what has been going on around you.

What causes absence seizures?

Seizures are due to alterations in electrical activity in the brain. Doctors can measure these changes with an electroencephalogram (EEG). An absence seizure is marked by a generalized and rhythmic 3-Hertz spike-and-wave EEG pattern.

Often, doctors cannot find the specific reason for the absence seizure.

However, absence seizures may have a genetic link. Absence seizures are hallmarks of at least the following genetic epilepsies:

  • childhood absence epilepsy
  • juvenile absence epilepsy
  • juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
  • Lennox-Gastaut syndrome

The genetic disorder glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome can also cause absence seizures. This is because the brain is not getting enough glucose, which it needs for energy.


Various things can trigger seizures, in general, and these can vary among people. Some triggers include:

  • not taking your seizure medications consistently
  • not getting enough sleep
  • drinking alcohol
  • withdrawing from some medications or alcohol
  • taking medications that may interfere with your seizure drugs


How do doctors diagnose absence seizures?

An EEG helps diagnose the type of seizure. If the doctor needs to bring about a seizure to record by EEG, they may ask a child to hyperventilate for 3–4 minutes while they count out loud, with their eyes shut. This can bring on an absence seizure in over 9 in 10 children with childhood absence epilepsy.

The doctor will also ask you about your or your child’s absence seizures. They will need clear details of what happens during the seizures. The more specific you can be, the easier it will be for your doctor to make the correct diagnosis.

Genetic tests may also be a part of the diagnosis when the doctor suspects a genetic epilepsy syndrome.

Getting an accurate diagnosis is important because absence seizures can be misinterpreted as focal impaired awareness seizures. This type of seizure begins in one side of the brain and, like an absence seizure, may or may not involve movements. In addition, a doctor may misdiagnose an absence seizure as a staring spell, which does not involve changes in brain activity.

The doctor may diagnose epilepsy if the absence seizure is followed by a second one more than 24 hours later or if there is a 60%-or-higher chance of a second one.

How do you treat absence seizures?

If someone is having an absence seizure, stay with them and try to steer them away from anything that may cause them harm. Note the details about the seizure, including how long it lasts, as this information can be useful for diagnosis and the ongoing management of absence seizures.

You or your child may not need treatment, especially if the seizures are rare. However, if the seizures are frequent, a doctor may prescribe a medication. The medication works by stabilizing the electrical activity in your brain. Commonly prescribed medications include:

  • ethosuximide (Zarontin)
  • lamotrigine (Lamictal)
  • valproic acid (Depakene)
  • divalproex sodium (Depakote)

How long you or your child may need this medication will vary. You may need to try different combinations of medications or various dosages to manage the seizures. Some childhood absence epilepsies resolve in adolescence. However, lifelong treatment may be necessary.

Self-care and diet for absence seizures

Avoiding known triggers is another way to treat absence seizures. Make sure that you or your child is getting enough sleep and eating meals regularly.

Talk with a doctor about dietary therapy for epilepsy. There is some evidence to suggest that a ketogenic diet can help manage seizures. The keto diet is high in fats and low in carbohydrates, which provides more energy for the brain. A medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet is more flexible than a keto diet and may also help. An MCT diet includes more carbohydrates and proteins and incorporates MCT oil, which is a type of fat.

What are some coping tips for absence seizures?

You can live a full and active life with some absence epilepsies, especially with the support of medications and self-care. However, you or your child may need support in various areas of your life. Specific recommendations depend on the age of the person who is experiencing seizures. Here are some general tips:

  • Communication and socializing: Talk with your child about their seizures and ensure that they get an opportunity to ask questions. Encourage them to safely take part in activities, build routines, and enjoy spending time with their family members and friends.
  • Education and employment: Educate your child’s teacher and school nurse about your child’s seizures. If you are affected and you work, talk with your employer to ensure that you are safe while working. Keep in mind that the Americans with Disabilities Act covers epilepsy, according to a 2013 document from the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
  • Bullying and discrimination: There can be a stigma attached to having seizures. Ask your child’s teacher to talk with the class about seizures and what to do if someone has one. If you have seizures, talk with your colleagues and friends.
  • Self-care: Getting enough sleep, eating regular healthy meals, and following a keto diet may help reduce your risk of experiencing a seizure. You may also need support with managing stress or anxiety.
  • Driving: Check with your local state regarding the laws for driving if you have seizures. You may wish to use public transport instead.
  • Online information and support groups: Connecting and talking with others who have seizures can be both helpful and reassuring. Some support groups include:
    • Epilepsy Foundation
    • American Epilepsy Society
    • International League Against Epilepsy

What is the outlook for someone with absence seizures?

The outlook for people with absence seizures and epilepsy depends on the specific type of epilepsy and seizures the person experiences. Around 7 out of 10 people with childhood absence epilepsy will have their absence seizures under control with epilepsy medications, according to Epilepsy Action.

Absence seizures usually stop by adolescence for 57–74% of children with

childhood absence epilepsy. It is rare for absence seizures to continue into adulthood.

Other frequently asked questions

Here are some other questions that people have asked about absence seizures.

Are absence seizures dangerous?

Even though they are brief, absence seizures can be dangerous when they occur during a particular activity, such as bathing, swimming, climbing, or driving. In addition, children who experience absence seizures often have impaired attention and memory.

Who gets absence seizures?

Absence seizures occur in children more frequently than in adults. Children are usually ages 4–14 years when they start having seizures. Females tend to experience absence seizures more than males.

How often do absence seizures occur?

Absence seizures can happen regularly and frequently — from 10 to more than 30 times per day.

Can you prevent absence seizures?

You may be able to reduce the frequency of your absence seizures by avoiding your triggers, taking your prescribed medications, and sleeping and eating well.


Absence seizures occur when someone loses awareness of their surroundings for around 15 seconds. The seizures are defined by a rhythmic spike-and-wave pattern on an EEG. These seizures can occur many times per day.

Absence seizures are associated with certain types of epilepsy that tend to affect children.

Taking medications and avoiding known triggers can help reduce the frequency of absence seizures.


Source:, Rebekah Louise

A brain tumour left my child with epilepsy

A brain tumour left my child with epilepsy

Roux Owen was just four weeks old when he was diagnosed with a rare brain tumour. He underwent extensive treatment and now lives with the effects of the disease, including epilepsy. This National Epilepsy Week, his dad Antony describes the impact it has had on the family.

Roux isn’t even three yet and he’s undergone more than 10 surgeries, has a shunt, has been left blind in his left eye, has development delays and is at continued risk of tumour regrowth. On top of all that, he also has epilepsy.

Roux’s first seizure came off the back of one of his surgeries when he was three or four months old. He didn’t have another for a while, but they started again around eight months later. He’s been on various different medications and they’ve tried upping the strength of his medication, but his seizures have got worse. We’re currently investigating further, potentially building up to surgery which would hopefully make his seizures less frequent, or possibly even stop them altogether.

We’re struggling with the idea of putting Roux through more surgery if we end up going down that route. We don’t want to lose any more of him. If Roux came out of surgery with more brain damage, I don’t know if I could forgive myself.

I don’t think people are aware of how many ways a seizure can present itself and I still find it difficult to understand what kind Roux is having. He’s had absence seizures. He’s been unconscious and had full-on convulsive seizures. He had one where he was wide awake with his arm twitching and he was trying to stop it with his other arm. There was one occasion where he took a sharp intake of breath and just stopped moving. I thought he was gone. It was terrifying.

That’s one reason I’m so keen to share Roux’s story. To raise awareness of the fact that epilepsy doesn’t just take one form.

My wife Amy and I are getting better at spotting the signs of a seizure. When they first started, we were getting up every hour in the night, taking it in turns to check on Roux. It was absolutely exhausting.

We’ve bought a video monitor, as well as heart rate and oxygen monitors. We keep a constant eye on him. After Roux goes to bed, we sit on the sofa surrounded by these monitors, watching him on the iPad to check he’s ok.

At the moment, I’d say Roux’s epilepsy is harder to deal with than his brain tumour recovery. At least with his brain tumour, we know when the next MRI scan will be. We know that if there are any signs of growth, we’ll treat it. But there’s no rhyme or reason with his epilepsy; his seizures are so unpredictable. I’m terrified he’ll die in his sleep.

Despite everything he’s been through, Roux is such a happy little boy. He’s very talkative with the noises he can make and is showing signs of crawling. He gets frustrated sometimes and it’s horrible that we can’t explain to him what’s happening. I think it will get harder when he gets older.

It also affects his big brother Noah. He knows Roux has a ‘poorly head’ but we try and protect him from the rest of it. Thankfully, Noah has never seen Roux have a seizure, but he sometimes asks questions like why can’t Roux walk yet when his friends’ younger siblings can. It’s tough but he’s getting some great support at school.

The boys have an amazing relationship. Noah is so good with Roux, who follows him everywhere. Roux’s favourite thing is to go on the swings in our garden and Noah will push him or swing next to him for hours.

Amy started using Instagram to share Roux’s journey. She set up the @RouxsArmy page and it really helped her. It was a way to compartmentalise what was happening with Roux’s brain tumour journey and to move forward.

When you have a poorly child, people tend to deal with it one of two ways. Some people will stop contacting you because they don’t know what to say. Others are constantly asking for updates and you find yourself sending the same message over and over again. Social media is a way to keep everyone updated.

I also use Twitter to update people on Roux’s situation and to raise awareness. Connecting with others who’ve gone through something similar is a comfort and it gives me hope. People tell me about their child who was diagnosed with a brain tumour at a similar age to Roux and the things they have gone on to do, like graduating from uni.

We don’t know what Roux will go on to do, but having that hope is so important.

I receive messages from people from around the world telling me that Roux’s story has helped them put their own life into perspective. It’s touching to know that Roux gives others hope too.

We do have bad days when we ask ‘why us?’ Sometimes it can feel like we have no luck, and it’s easy to wallow. But those connections I’ve made help with that too. I think of those who have lost their lives to this disease – especially young people – and I realise that, despite everything we’re going through, we are lucky.

We still have Roux.


Source:, Antony Owen

UAB does first radiofrequency ablation for epilepsy in Alabama

UAB does first radiofrequency ablation for epilepsy in Alabama

Neurosurgeons with the University of Alabama at Birmingham have performed the first radiofrequency ablation for epilepsy in Alabama. Ablation uses heat energy to remove lesions in the brain responsible for epileptic seizures. It is a minimally invasive procedure that provides a treatment option for patients who have drug-resistant epilepsy offered through UAB Medicine.

The first procedure was performed by Kristen Riley, M.D., and Nicole Bentley, M.D., in the Department of Neurosurgery at the UAB Heersink School of Medicine. Alabama native Ashley Williard was the inaugural patient.

Epilepsy diagnosis

Ashley’s journey with epilepsy began early in life when the doctors identified her mother’s negative platelet antigen while Ashley was in the womb. As a result, antibodies began attacking Ashley’s platelets, causing a brain bleed. She started experiencing balance issues around 18 months old and was diagnosed with a cyst in proximity to her brain stem soon after. She had surgery to drain the cyst, then began to have infrequent generalized seizures, which continued throughout high school.

Through it all, Ashley enjoyed ballet, swimming, cheer and tennis. She attended Troy University and earned her bachelor’s degree in hospitality, sports and tourism management.

She eventually needed medications to control her seizures, which increased in frequency to about twice a week during college. She ultimately was referred to the UAB Epilepsy Center and evaluated by Zeenat Jaisani, M.D.Zeenat Jaisani, M.D., in the Department of Neurology before meeting with Riley and Bentley in March 2021.

Treatment at UAB

A few months later, Ashley made the brave decision, alongside her care team led by Riley and Bentley, to proceed with an exploratory surgery called stereo-electroencephalography, or SEEG, to determine the location of her seizures.

“They shaved my head, drilled holes, and placed electrodes directly in my brain to monitor and determine where the seizures were coming from,” said Ashley.

She was weaned off seizure medications and monitored in the hospital for nine days.

“Day eight was very hard for me until Dr. Riley came into my room to share the good news: I was a perfect candidate for the RFA procedure!” said Ashley.

RFA is commonly performed following identification of the seizure onset zone through SEEG.

One of the electrodes precisely identified the location of the lesion responsible for the seizure activity. Riley explained to that Ashley they would use heat energy generated by a laser to ablate this particular area and there was a 50 percent chance that she would walk away seizure-free.

After the ablation is completed, a follow-up MRI scan is obtained and the laser is removed. The patient goes to the recovery room for a few hours before moving to overnight observation, prior to discharge the following day.

Life today

Since her RFA procedure, Ashley has been seizure-free for over six months.

“I will be able to drive again next month, and I am more confident knowing I can go places without having a seizure,” she said. “My family and I have a strong faith, and I consider my healing a true miracle. I prayed God would heal me, and He did. I am also thankful that I was introduced to another person during the hospital stay who had a similar experience to me. She was very supportive and was there when I needed someone to talk to. I actually gained a new friend.”

Ashley says she is beyond grateful for the UAB medical team, staff and clinicians who took care of her.


Source:, Aubrey Joyner, Bob Shepard

Brain tumours and epilepsy

Brain tumours and epilepsy

During National Epilepsy Week, our Director of Research, Policy and Innovation Dr Karen Noble highlights the connection between brain tumours and epilepsy.

Many brain tumour patients experience epileptic seizures and know the disruption these can cause. Seizures are common in patients with brain tumours and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life.

Of patients with brain tumours, the frequency of epilepsy is 30% or more depending on tumour type. For 30-50% of patients with brain tumours, an epileptic seizure is the presenting clinical sign of a tumour; 10-30% will go on to experience seizures.

In patients with a brain tumour, seizures are the onset symptom in 20-40% of patients, while a further 20-45% of patients will present them during the course of the disease.

Among all tumour types, seizures are most common with glioneuronal tumours (70-80%), particularly in patients with frontotemporal or insular lesions. Seizures are also common in individuals with glioma, with the highest rates of epilepsy (60-75%) observed in patients with low-grade gliomas located in superficial cortical or insular regions. Approximately 20-50% of patients with meningioma and 20-35% of those with brain metastases also suffer from seizures.

After tumour resection, approximately 60-90% are rendered seizure-free, with most favourable seizure outcomes seen in individuals with glioneuronal tumours. Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favourable seizure outcome.

The powerful image we’ve used today is of Roux Owen, who now lives with epilepsy as a result of a brain tumour. Read more about the impact of epilepsy on his family on our blog: A brain tumour left my child with epilepsy.