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imaging

Advanced brain scanner allows neuroimaging in moving subjects

A new innovation in brain scanner technology promises high-resolution neuroimaging in subjects without restricting their head and body movements. Neurons are specialized cells that are designed to generate electrochemical signals. These signals are the currency used to transmit information across the body. Neurons connect the brain, spinal cord, and each nook and cranny of our body to form information highways, transmitting sensory and motor information to different cells and other neurons in the body in the form of electrical impulses. Electrical currents also produce a magnetic field, proportional to the magnitude of the current that is producing it.

Glutamate imaging may guide surgery in ‘nonlesional’ epilepsy

Glutamate imaging may be capable of identifying the focus of epileptic seizures in patients who appear to have nonlesional epilepsy on standard imaging techniques, researchers report in Science Translational Medicine. The findings are based on just four patients, but the team chose to publish the results to speed wider validation of the technique, saying that it could lead to substantial improvements in the treatment of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. “Because it is… well established that patients with lesional epilepsy have better surgical outcomes than those with nonlesional epilepsy, new neuroimaging techniques capable of detecting subtle lesions could potentially improve patient care and increase the chance of seizure freedom after surgery”, say Kathryn Davis (Hospital of the Un...

Volumetric Brain Analysis ‘Can Help Predict Post-Neurosurgery Seizure Outcomes’

Via: Epilepsy Research UK Brain scans could be used as a means of predicting seizure outcomes in epilepsy patients, according to a new study. Carried out by Pennsylvania State University, the study aimed to test the hypothesis that computed tomography (CT) volumetric analysis can be used in patient selection to help predict outcomes following resection. For this study, a total of ten paediatric patients received preoperative CT scans and temporal resections at the CURE Children’s Hospital of Uganda, with classifications of seizure control levels determined 12 months postoperatively. Temporal lobe volumes were measured from CT and normative MR images, with whole brain and fluid volumes also assessed using particle filter segmentation. Linear discrimination analysis was also performed to cla...

VTT develops innovative magnetometer for applications such as medical imaging

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed an innovative magnetometer that can replace conventional technology in applications such as neuro-imaging, mineral exploration and molecular diagnostics. Its manufacturing costs are between 70 and 80 per cent lower than those of traditional technology, and the device is not as sensitive to external magnetic fields as its predecessors. The design of the magnetometer also makes it easier to integrate into measuring systems. Magnetometers are sensors that measure magnetic fields or changes in magnetic fields. The kinetic inductance magnetometer developed by VTT makes use of the dependence of superconductors’ electrical properties on magnetic fields. This has allowed research scientists to develop an innovative sensor element which i...

Researchers give new, unprecedented 3-D view of most important brain receptors

06/23/14  Portland, Ore. New details on the NMDA receptor could aid development of drugs for Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, depression, other neurological disorders Researchers with Oregon Health & Science University’s Vollum Institute have given science a new and unprecedented 3-D view of one of the most important receptors in the brain — a receptor that allows us to learn and remember, and whose dysfunction is involved in a wide range of neurological diseases and conditions, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, schizophrenia and depression. The unprecedented view provided by the OHSU research, published online June 22 in the journal Nature, gives scientists new insight into how the receptor — called the NMDA receptor — is structured. And importantly, the new detailed view...

SEEG: New Hope for Severe Epilepsy

One of the major challenges of using surgery to treat epilepsy has always been finding the place in the brain where the person’s seizures begin. The more precisely doctors can pinpoint this area, the better they can focus efforts for surgical treatment. This is especially important in the delicate landscape of the brain where surgeons work to remove as little tissue as possible. Now, a relatively new procedure called stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is significantly boosting success rates of epilepsy surgery. It allows doctors to be much more precise in targeting the origin of seizures, and gives hope to people with severe epilepsy. Before SEEG, the chances of eliminating seizures after epilepsy surgery were low — only about 20 to 30 percent. But now, SEEG has brought the rates of long-...

MEG Brain Maps May Help Guide Epilepsy Surgery

Neuroscientists have used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to produce detailed spatial maps of critical language function, which may help surgeons more accurately plan surgery in patients with epilepsy. “When carrying out brain surgery it’s imperative not only to determine where the areas are to treat but whether the critical regions that carry out higher functions like language and memory will be affected,” Ryan D’Arcy, PhD, from the National Research Council (NRC) Institute for Biodiagnostics (Atlantic), Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, said in a statement. Functional imaging is increasingly being used to provide a noninvasive alternative to intracarotid sodium amobarbital testing (the Wada test), Dr. D’Arcy...

Abnormal Imaging Indicates Surgery Most Effective Treatment in Intractable Epilepsy

MONTREAL, Quebec, Canada — Abnormal neuroimaging in children with early medically intractable epilepsy is a strong indication for surgical rather than medical treatment, new research suggests. “The goal here is to identify which kids who appear medically intractable early in the course of epilepsy will not remit and thus should be considered for early surgery to prevent associated comorbidities of epilepsy,” lead author Elaine Wirrell, MD, told Medscape Medical News in an interview. “It is a dilemma as surgery is considered quite invasive and higher risk.” Parents often want to wait and make sure their child doesn’t just outgrow the seizures, said Dr. Wirrell, who is professor of neurology at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, “but this finding is ...

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