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In Epilepsy, Sleep Apnea Can Be at Play Even When You Least Expect It

In Epilepsy, Sleep Apnea Can Be at Play Even When You Least Expect It

Case shows importance of sleep apnea screening in all epileptic patients

By Nancy Foldvary-Schaefer, DO, MS

Presentation

sleep-apneaA 25-year-old man presented to Cleveland Clinic’s Epilepsy Center in 2002 with epileptic seizures occurring as frequently as once a day and convulsions occurring about once a week. Diagnosed with epilepsy at age 15, he had never been able to work outside the home or drive a car.

The patient was evaluated at Cleveland Clinic for surgical therapy, as his seizures were not controlled by anti-epileptic medications (oxcarbazepine and levetiracetam, prescribed at another institution). Because we were unable to localize his seizures, he was not a candidate for resection. He did receive a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS), which also proved ineffective in controlling his seizures.

Evaluation

The patient did not display the classic symptoms of sleep apnea. He was not greatly overweight. He had mild, intermittent snoring, but his wife did not observe cessation of breathing during the night.

Nevertheless, we decided to conduct a sleep study because sleep apnea has been associated with worsening epileptic seizures. In the laboratory at the Cleveland Clinic Sleep Disorders Center, he was observed to have 17 episodes of breathing cessation per hour of sleep; 15 episodes is considered to be moderate sleep apnea, and 30 is classified as severe. The medical literature indicates that a frequency of 15 episodes per hour increases the risk of a variety of cardiovascular events, including heart attack and stroke. In addition, his oxygen saturation level dropped to 67 percent during the study, which is considered significant desaturation.

Treatment

The patient was placed on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy at a pressure level of 10 cm of water, ensuring that his apnea episodes would occur fewer than five times per hour and his oxygen saturation level would exceed 90 percent. He continued medical therapy with anti-seizure medications, which were adjusted over time as new drugs, with fewer side effects, became available. (He now takes topiramate and lamotrigine.)

Outcome

After beginning CPAP therapy, the patient gradually experienced fewer and fewer seizures. Within about two months they had stopped altogether.

During a 10-year follow-up period, he remained seizure-free. Initially, we weren’t sure what role each of the treatments (CPAP therapy, VNS, medications) played in his improvement. But when the VNS failed twice — the second time permanently — and the seizures did not recur, we concluded that the CPAP therapy had the most impact.

Eight years after beginning CPAP therapy, he returned to the Sleep Disorders Center complaining of recurrent daytime sleepiness, but not seizures. In the sleep laboratory we determined that he required a higher pressure from the CPAP machine (a common development for patients who have been on CPAP therapy for several years). After the pressure was increased, his sleepiness resolved.

This father of two can now drive a car, and he works full-time as a quality technician in the auto industry.

Discussion: More sleep apnea screening needed in epileptic patients

The association between obstructive sleep apnea and epilepsy is fairly well recognized. Our group recently published a study demonstrating the benefit of CPAP therapy in reducing seizures among patients with epilepsy.

Despite a growing body of evidence pointing to sleep apnea as an activator of seizures, few epilepsy providers refer their patients for sleep studies. Most patients who come to us have never had a discussion with their doctors about their sleep. We believe that every patient with epilepsy, and especially those whose seizures are poorly controlled, should be screened for sleep apnea. This is one of the ways we can greatly enhance the quality of life for these patients.

Dr. Foldvary-Schaefer is Director of Cleveland Clinic’s Sleep Disorders Center and a staff physician in the Epilepsy Center.

SOURCE: http://consultqd.clevelandclinic.org/2015/08/in-epilepsy-sleep-apnea-can-be-at-play-even-when-you-least-expect-it/

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6 Comments

  1. “Most patients who come to us have never had a discussion with their doctors about their sleep”. Lmao. The last time I tried to discuss my epilepsy with my gp it turned out he didn’t know *anything* about epilepsy. Nothing. He didn’t even know there are different types *sigh*

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  2. Crystal

    Reply
  3. My daughter has had epilepsy for 10 years and I’ve never heard of it correlating with her sleep apnea… she had her tonsils and adenoids out when she was three years old which actually triggered more seizures leading to having her diagnosed properly because it was much more obvious there was something wrong. Is there a running list of other conditions that are more common when epilepsy is present??? It took me two years to have her diagnosed with severe anxiety as well, but according to the therapist we went to it is very common with epileptic children… I feel like I’m always on a learning curve LOL

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  4. I have vns as well

    Reply
  5. I have a vans awhile

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  6. I was diagnosed with epilepsy 2 years ago. This year my neurologist recommended a sleep study do to side affects of sleep apnea that I thought might be epilepsy related. I was diagnosed with severe apnea and have been on a cpap machine since. My issues I was having are improving. Also, I have had only one seizure in 3 months. Just wish I did all of this years ago when my seizures started.

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