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Autism

Autism: Which children respond to oxytocin treatment?

Oxytocin treatment has been proven efficient in improving the social behavior of some children with autism, studies have found. A new clinical trial investigates which children will respond best to this treatment and why. Autism is a developmental disability that often leads to struggles in communication, reduced empathy, and social inadaptability to a greater or lesser degree.

How an autism gene mutation alters brain development

By analyzing the brains of mice, researchers have discovered how mutations in a gene called CHD8 may alter brain development and cognitive functioning to cause autism. Researchers from the United States and Canada found that CHD8 gene mutations altered gene expression in mice, impairing their cognitive functioning and increasing brain volume. Both of these characteristics are present in humans with autism who have CHD8 gene mutations.

Q&A: How algorithms are fighting epilepsy

Researchers are crowdsourcing mathematical whizzkids to help predict when a seizure might strike! When Dr Levin Kuhlmann (BSc(Hons) 2000) set about probing the mysteries of how and why epileptic seizures occur, he took a novel approach to advancing the cause. He organised an international crowdsourcing project. He and his Melbourne colleagues sought engineering talent rather than investors’ money, with the goal of writing computer algorithms capable of predicting epileptic seizures based on the electrical signals and activity recorded from patients’ brains.

Autism linked to many other health issues

Autism spectrum disorder affects 1 in 68 children in the U.S. Challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communications are some of the issues people with autism may experience. But what many don’t know is that those with autism often struggle with an array of other health problems, too.

If your grandmother smoked, you may be more likely to develop autism

A recent study, published in Scientific Reports, concludes that if a girl’s maternal grandmother smoked tobacco during her pregnancy, she is significantly more likely to develop autistic traits. Could smoking increase the risk of your grandchildren displaying autism-associated traits? Autism, characterized by repetitive behaviors and difficulty interacting socially, appears to be on the rise. Much of this increase is thought to be due to better detection rates and greater awareness. However, many scientists believe that environmental or lifestyle factors might also play a role. A recent study, carried out by researchers from the University of Bristol in the United Kingdom, looked into three generations of data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a long-...

‘Minibrains’ In A Dish Shed A Little Light On Autism And Epilepsy

Tiny, 3-D clusters of human brain cells grown in a petri dish are providing hints about the origins of disorders like autism and epilepsy. An experiment using these cell clusters — which are only about the size of the head of a pin — found that a genetic mutation associated with both autism and epilepsy kept developing cells from migrating normally from one cluster of brain cells to another, researchers report in the journal Nature.

World’s largest autism genome database shines new light on many ‘autisms’

isThe newest study from the Autism Speaks MSSNG project – the world’s largest autism genome sequencing program – identified an additional 18 gene variations that appear to increase the risk of autism. The new report appears in the journal Nature Neuroscience. It involved the analysis of 5,205 whole genomes from families affected by autism – making it the largest whole genome study of autism to date.

Cerebrospinal fluid: Potential biomarker for autism found

Research published this week in Biological Psychiatry examines levels of cerebrospinal fluid in children and its potential link to autism. If confirmed by further studies, it would become the first biomarker for the condition.

Genital herpes in pregnancy may raise autism risk for offspring

Children born to mothers who have active genital herpes during pregnancy may be at twice the risk of developing autism spectrum disorder, new research suggests. Researchers suggest a link between active HSV-2 in early pregnancy and autism risk in offspring. Lead author Milada Mahic, of the Center for Infection and Immunity and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in Norway, and colleagues report their findings in the journal mSphere. Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection primarily caused by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Around 417 million people worldwide have genital herpes caused by HSV-2, with around 10-20 percent of cases occurring in people who have received a prior diagnosis of the condition.

Mapping premature infant’s brain after birth may help better predict developmental problems

Scanning a premature infant’s brain shortly after birth to map the location and volume of lesions, small areas of injury in the brain’s white matter, may help doctors better predict whether the baby will have disabilities later.

First Guideline on Presurgical Brain Mapping for Epilepsy

The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) has released the first evidence-based guideline comparing procedures used for determining brain lateralization prior to epilepsy surgery and for predicting post-surgical language and memory deficits.

Brain alterations in preterm babies may begin weeks before birth

Alterations in the developing brain that can put preterm babies at risk of autism, cerebral palsy, and other developmental disorders may begin in the womb. This is the finding of a new study published in the journal Scientific Reports. Preterm birth is defined as the birth of an infant prior to 37 weeks of pregnancy. In the United States, around 1 in every 10 infants born in 2015 were preterm.

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